Application of Chinese medical titanium alloy

(HY-industry technical centre)

In the early 1970s, China began to use domestic titanium and titanium alloy products. In many hospitals in Beijing, titanium and titanium alloy artificial bones and joints were used for clinical therapeutic applications and research, and the hip joints and elbow joints were manufactured. The mandible and the like are used for clinical treatment of patients. At the same time, some hospitals and companies simulated human body fluid soaking experiments, electrochemical anodization experiments and corrosion kinetic curves, which proved that titanium and titanium alloy artificial bones and joints have excellent corrosion resistance and biological response. It is also an ideal human implant. The mechanical properties of implanted bones and joints have also been determined. The strength of titanium and titanium alloys is considered to meet the requirements of human implants.

After the mid-1980s, the number of Chinese titanium materials used to manufacture human implants increased, and the development and application of titanium shape memory alloys reached the international advanced level. In the mid-1990s, domestic titanium and titanium alloy processing materials were widely used in orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, cardiovascular system, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and human in vitro culture machines. In the past five years, a large number of domestic enterprises have become human body implant manufacturers such as titanium and stainless steel. Femoral head, hip joint, tibia, skull, knee joint, elbow joint, shoulder joint, metacarpophalangeal joint, jaw bone and heart disc, kidney disc, vasodilator, splint, prosthesis, made of titanium and titanium alloy Hundreds of metal parts, such as fastening screws, have been transplanted into the human body and have achieved good results, which has been highly evaluated by the medical community. The main applications are as follows:

1.Application of titanium in the pharmaceutical industry

Titanium is mainly used in the pharmaceutical industry for the production of vessels, reactors and heaters. In the process of manufacturing pharmaceuticals, equipment often comes into contact with inorganic acids, organic acids and their salts such as hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and sulfuric acid. The equipment is damaged due to long-term corrosion. At the same time, the iron ion pollution caused by steel equipment affects the quality of the products. Titanium equipment can solve these problems. For example, penicillin esterification kettles, saccharification tanks, chloramphenicol thin film evaporators, dimethyl sulfate coolers, chemical liquid filters, etc., all have precedents for selecting titanium materials. The quantity and quality of the liquid chemicals produced by the titanium equipment are constantly increasing, and the quality is in full compliance with the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

2. Application of titanium in medical devices

In the history of the development of surgical instruments, the first generation of surgical instruments were mostly made of carbon steel, which was eliminated because the performance of carbon steel instruments after electroplating did not meet the clinical requirements. The second generation is austenitic, ferritic and martensitic stainless steel surgical instruments, but the chromium in the stainless steel is toxic, and the chrome-plated layer has a certain influence on the human body.
Medical titanium alloy medical equipment is the third generation of surgical instruments after carbon steel and stainless steel.

  • The device is light and lightweight, which can reduce damage to blood vessels, muscles and organs during surgery, and reduce fatigue of doctors. Medical titanium instruments are more suitable for fine microsurgery;

  • Good corrosion resistance and non-toxicity, equipment is not rusted, wounds are not easy to be infected, and wounds heal quickly;

  • The elasticity of medical titanium alloy is suitable for pliers, tweezers, micro scalpels and other instruments;

  • When operating under a shadowless lamp, the reflective properties of medical titanium are weaker and more suitable than stainless steel;

Medical titanium medical devices mainly include: scalpels, surgical forceps, surgical forceps, chest enlargers, suture needles, sutures, and the like. Medical titanium wire is used as a surgical suture, which has the advantages of small tissue reaction and good torsional resistance compared with other materials such as stainless steel wire. After suturing, the surgical wound is not easy to be inflamed, and the suture site of the bone is not easily displaced. The suture is generally made of medical titanium wire (TA1 or TA2 wire) having a diameter of 0.5-0.8 mm. In addition, the soft elasticity of the titanium-nickel alloy wire can promote the rapid healing of the wound.

In addition, medical titanium alloys are also important materials for assisting rehabilitation equipment, such as wheelchairs, crutches, splints, and medical instruments.

3. Application of titanium alloy in facial treatment

When the human face receives severe damage, local tissue repair is treated by surgical implantation. Titanium alloy has good biocompatibility and required strength, so it is an ideal material for facial tissue repair. The skull bracket made of pure titanium mesh has been widely used in the reconstruction of the humerus and has achieved good clinical results.

4.Dental applications of titanium and titanium alloys

Metals used in dental surgery began with amalgams and metal crowns in the 1920s. Gold, silver, and palladium alloys were used in the 1960s. Stainless steel became a permanent and detachable instrument for orthodontics after the 1970s. The most commonly used materials, titanium casting technology in the 1990s was promoted and applied. Dental is cast by titanium casting machine with high dimensional accuracy, no bubbles and shrinkage. In the metal materials used for hard tissue repair, the elastic modulus of titanium is closest to human tissue, which can reduce metal implants and bones. Mechanical incompatibility between organizations. The thermal conductivity of titanium is the lowest of all dental repair metal materials, and the low thermal conductivity can reduce the thermal stimulation of the dental pulp of the toothed crown and is important for dental restoration. Titanium inlays, full crowns, etc. have the function of protecting the pulp and avoiding hot and cold stimuli. In terms of material, dental titanium is mostly pure titanium, but its strength is insufficient, it is difficult to grind, and it has poor wear resistance, and is prone to casting defects and unstable quality. Titanium alloy has high strength, the most commonly used is Ti-6Al-4V alloy, but because metal V is harmful to human body, Nb is used instead of V, and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy is successfully developed, which has excellent corrosion resistance and The human body is basically harmless, and has other advantages such as strong plasticity and excellent abrasiveness, and has been approved by the ASTM standard.

At present, titanium can be used as a crown, a crown nail, a fixed bridge, a porcelain bridge, a bonded bridge, a denture snap ring, a base, a connecting device and a reinforcing device. Almost all metal parts of the denture can be made of titanium. Titanium alloy porcelain teeth can restore the shape and function of the tooth well, and has high strength, beautiful appearance, stable color, smooth surface, abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance. It is a permanent restoration suitable for all fixed teeth. In particular, it is biocompatible, suitable for people sensitive to nickel ions, and has been widely used in the repair of teeth.

5, the application of titanium in implants

In medical transplantation, artificial joints and artificial bone substitute materials should have the following basic characteristics: light weight, high strength, biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and the tissue reaction of the implant in the body will not cause Deterioration of materials, fatigue caused by repeated stresses, and less damage. The most important properties of metal implants are form, machine addition and polishability, which must remain functional for the expected life and do not deteriorate under fatigue, wear, corrosion and impact loads… Titanium and titanium alloy materials The emergence of all the above requirements. The earliest used artificial joint materials such as dental powder, polypropylene, and plexiglass have low strength, easy folding, and poor biocompatibility, and later changed to stainless steel. However, stainless steel not only corrodes and breaks in the body’s receptor fluid, but also has a large specific gravity, which is about twice the proportion of human bones. Co-Cr alloy is also an excellent artificial joint material, but unfortunately, cobalt and chromium are poisonous to human body. Titanium and titanium alloys have a small specific gravity (similar to the specific gravity of human bone), high strength, good mechanical processing, and excellent corrosion resistance, and naturally become a new and ideal artificial joint material. Surgical graft materials stipulate that titanium materials are mainly made of pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4VELI alloy.

In recent years, the graft materials Ti-13Nb1-13Zr and Ti-6Al-7Nb, which have good affinity to human body, have also been approved by ASTM standards. Artificial bones and bone joints made of titanium can be regenerated on the cells without affecting bone growth, and have good affinity with human bones, epithelium and tissue.

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