J58 vortex jet mode at low speed

Research on SR-71 “Blackbird” and Chinese Hypersonic Fighter

(Hy-industry encyclopaedia)

  • “Blackbird” gives the deepest impression of fast speed, strong stealth ability, and a wide range of reconnaissance. “Blackbird” created a miracle in the history of aviation. The Americans originally wanted to build a fighter that would fly faster than bullets. Because the low-altitude firepower at that time had entered the era of combining artillery and missiles, in order to survive in front of this kind of air defense firepower, speed was of paramount importance, so the speed of the “Black Bird” reached Mach 3 and the flying height was 30,000 meters The so-called “double three” combination.

  • After the first “Blackbird” fighter came out, American reporters felt it was weird because it found that it would leak oil when on the ground. If a flight of Mach 3 is carried out, the lowest temperature on the “Blackbird” fuselage is 474 ℃ In addition to the power system, the temperature can reach 1200 ° C, and the other edge temperatures can also reach 594 ° C, which means that the “black bird” has a strong starting heating ability. After reaching the sky, this thermal expansion and contraction will make it No oil dripping.

  • Therefore, the first thing after “Black Bird” is to go to heaven.

  • Data shows that “Blackbird” built a total of 32 aircraft, 12 of which were lost in flight accidents. “Blackbird” can scan the ground at a height of about 24 kilometers at a speed of about 72 square kilometers per second.

  • The famous military expert Du Wenlong said that from the perspective of the reconnaissance effect, the “Black Bird” is indeed very amazing. It can pass by at high speed, and it has a very good effect on the reconnaissance of Vietnam, North Korea and other hot areas. From the perspective of the entire aerodynamic shape, the “Black Bird” It also possesses the ability of quasi-stealth. Compared with the previous aircraft, when the general radar observes this fighter, its launch characteristics will be significantly reduced, and the distance will be reduced.

  • In the 24 years of service life, the SR-71 “Blackbird” strategic reconnaissance aircraft encountered a total of 4,000 surface-to-air missiles, all of which successfully got rid of it, without losing one in combat. The most effective means of self-defense for Blackbird is altitude and speed. The aircraft is designed to cruise at Mach 3.3 at an altitude of 24,000 meters. At this height, the “Black Bird” can shoot 260,000 square kilometers of the earth’s surface per hour. At that time, it was difficult for any enemy fighter to intercept the aircraft.

  • Former “Blackbird” pilot Colonel Richard Graham once said that the SR-71 can travel anywhere in the world and return safely, he recalled a mission: “Me and the Rear Seat Reconnaissance System Officer (RSO) Don Emmons As we approached Soviet airspace at the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the trails of three Soviet fighters appeared in the distance. The three MiG-25 fighters were hovering clockwise, and when the SR-71 approached, I could see them flying directly towards us Come, 3-5 kilometers away from each other. At this time the wake suddenly disappeared, I know that these fighters began to enter the climb with full force, trying to intercept us. These Soviet pilots may have been ordered to shoot down the ‘Black Bird’, but they cannot climb. To our height. I often want to know their exact feelings, knowing that we are helpless here. Any effort is futile. I smile and imagine their frustrations and difficulties. “

How did F-14 and F-15 intercept the “Black Bird” in the Cold War

  • The sr-71 flew in formation with the f-14According to Graham, there were only two fighters capable of shooting down the SR-71 during the Cold War: F-15 “Eagle” and F-14 “Tomcat”. SR-71 often cooperates with F-14 and F-15 volley training, and needs to fly “Tomcat Chase” and “Eagle Bait” missions. The SR-71 flies at high altitude and high speed, giving the F-14 and F-15 the opportunity to search, track, lock, intercept, and simulate the launch of the AIM-54 “Undead Bird” and AIM-7 “Sparrow” air-to-air missiles. The “Tomcat Chase” mission was conducted in Pacific Controlled Airspace northwest of Los Angeles, and the “Eagle Bait” mission was conducted at the Nellis Air Force Base training ground north of Las Vegas, Nevada. In “Tomcat Chase”, the F-14 generally fights in the form of two-machine formations.

  • In order to make full use of precious opportunities, the “Blackbird” flew straight into the training airspace at high speed, allowing the fighter to occupy a favorable position in this high-altitude / high-speed interception training to avoid multiple misses and thus a waste of time. Interception is carried out in a very controlled environment, which is conducive to the successful implementation of fighter interception. Both the SR-71 and the fighter are on the same ground control intercept (GCI) frequency, so the fighter can easily enter the head-on intercept under the guidance, and the “Blackbird” can even talk to the fighter crew.

  • SR-71 does not make any maneuvers. It flies at a constant altitude, airspeed, and course. It is not allowed to turn on the jammer. The fighter enters the head-on interception under the guidance of the ground control interception. But even under such highly controlled flight conditions, the probability of the F-14 and F-15 “shooting down” the SR-71 is very low, mainly due to the height difference between the two aircraft and the terrifying relative speed making this head-on Interception is very challenging, and the time window to meet the missile launch conditions is only a few seconds, leaving many crews too late to react.

  • At the beginning of the “Eagle Bait” mission, the F-15 pilot found that the speed gate of the onboard fire control system (used to calculate the approach speed between the two aircraft) could not keep up with the SR-71’s limit approach speed, which was later upgraded by computer software Only solved this problem.

  • Of course, F-14 and F-15 want to shoot down the “Black Bird” in actual combat, but also face two very real physical problems. If the fighters do not climb to more than 7,600 meters during interception, then their missiles will be difficult to climb to 17,000 meters after launch, let alone kill the SR-71. Since the operating wings of the “Undead Bird” and “Sparrow” missiles are very small, they are only optimized for maneuvering in the dense atmosphere below 12,000 meters, so after climbing to a height of 24,000 meters, even if the wings are completely deflected, it is difficult for the missile Turn.

  • The Soviets also found a similar problem in intercepting the “Black Bird”. One of the main reasons why MiG-25 never successfully shot down the “Black Bird” was that its airborne computer was very primitive. After the solution was completed, SR-71 Already flew out of the shooting window. In addition, most air-to-air missiles were optimized for flying heights below 10,000 meters, and were only suitable for maneuvering in denser air. The SR-71’s cruising altitude is thin, making the missile’s wings ineffective and unable to effectively maneuver.

R2D2 in the back seat of “Blackbird”

  • R2D2 is a robot character in the Star Wars movie. Although it is only 0.96 meters tall, it is an amazing spacecraft mechanic and computer interface expert. The best function of R2D2 is to sit in the back seat of the X-wing fighter, assist pilots in flight and combat, and become a good helper for Skywalker.

  • In the real world, there is a kind of aircraft that also has the magical R2D2. It is the famous SR-71 “Blackbird” strategic reconnaissance aircraft.

  • R2D2 in the back seat of an x-wing fighterBefore the invention of GPS satellite navigation technology, the astronomical inertial navigation system was the most accurate navigation technology invented by man. This technology relies on the time-related position information of natural stars, with the help of airborne passive photoelectric detection equipment, to determine the course, attitude and position of the aircraft through calculation, and automatically updates the inertial navigation equipment to provide continuous accurate navigation. Even today, where GPS is popular, astronomical inertial navigation systems are still irreplaceable in some long-range military aircrafts. Especially when GPS signals are interfered, this navigation system becomes the only solution for reliable navigation.

  • Vc-10 sextant periscopeThe astronomical navigation equipment that first appeared on the plane was manual, in fact, it was a nautical sextant. For example, the early Boeing 747 had a sextant observation window, and the VC-10 and Boeing 737 were directly equipped with a sextant periscope. As airborne radio navigation systems have become more common and precise, this auxiliary astronomical navigation device has lost its use.

  • With the emergence of a large number of long-range and high-speed weapons during the Cold War, the commonly used inertial navigation system (INS) can no longer meet the needs of long-range navigation. This navigation system has a fixed drift rate. The farther the voyage, the greater the drift, and there must be another Auxiliary navigation means constantly update it to ensure navigation accuracy. Astronomical navigation that does not rely on any radio commands becomes the best auxiliary navigation method, and combined with the inertial navigation system has evolved into an automated astronomical inertial navigation system (ANS). This was an absolutely cutting-edge system at the time, which can automatically cross-check the local positions given by the inertial navigation and astronomical navigation respectively. If they are inconsistent, the latter data is used to update the former, which greatly improves the accuracy of the entire system. .

  • The US SM-62 “Shark” cruise missile used the astronomical inertial navigation system for the first time. After the missile upgraded its new navigation system in 1958, the circular error after flying thousands of kilometers was reduced from 27 kilometers to 6.4 kilometers. For the War Department, this error is irrelevant. Considering the technical level at the time, this is indeed a remarkable achievement. In the next few years, the astronomical inertial navigation system has been greatly developed, equipped with almost all US intercontinental missiles, and the famous Lockheed SR-71 “Blackbird” strategic reconnaissance aircraft.

  • SR-71 needs to be close to the Soviet border to carry out reconnaissance at a very high speed. The essence of this reconnaissance mission is highly accurate long-range navigation. In order to achieve this function, the Skunk Factory equipped the aircraft with the highest precision navigation equipment at that time-Nortronics NAS-14V2 astronomical inertial navigation system. The crew, mission planners and maintenance personnel of the “Blackbird” all call the NAS-14V2 R2D2. That’s right, the size of this device is indeed similar to R2D2, and it was installed in the back of the aircraft before the mission. “Blackbird” pilots often describe their aircraft as a three-seater.

  • Nortronics nas-14v2 astronomical inertial navigation systemNAS-14V2 is installed in the back of the SR-71 rear cockpit, so that the aircraft has the ability to accurately navigate without emitting any radio radiation to the outside. When the SR-71 was running on the ground, the clouds prevented the NAS-14V2’s astrological tracker from making accurate corrections. Therefore, the inertial system navigated and waited for it to fly over the clouds. This astronomical inertial navigation system knows where to look for stars at what time according to programming. The star tracker installed on the gimbal bracket regularly observes the position of the stars in flight, and the measured data is sent to a digital computer to correct the error of the inertial reference device. The navigation accuracy of this system is very high, and it can always make the SR-71 fly according to the scheduled reconnaissance route in every mission.

NAS-14V2 detail-1

NAS-14V2 detail-2

NAS-14V2 detail-3

  • Even today, where satellite navigation technology is highly developed, astronomical inertial navigation systems are still irreplaceable. I wonder if you have noticed a circular window on the left side of the cockpit of the B-2 stealth bomber. Below is the astrological tracker of the aircraft. Some artificial satellites are even equipped with astronomical navigation systems, which can perform self-positioning in space. There are even speculations that the F-35’s distributed aperture system can also be used for astronomical navigation, giving the aircraft long-range navigation capabilities that do not rely on GPS. As GPS jamming methods become more sophisticated today, astronomical inertial navigation systems on military aircraft are playing an increasingly important role.

  • The startracker window of b-2 is on the right

“Blackbird” that is always leaking oil

SR-71 “Blackbird” strategic reconnaissance aircraft is the brainchild of the famous designer Kelly Johnson of Lockheed. The maximum flight speed of this aircraft is more than three times the speed of sound. This kind of aircraft can surpass. During the development of SR-71, Lockheed developed a large number of pioneering new technologies and new manufacturing processes. It can be said that the manufacturing process was reinvented in order to build this aircraft. Can be achieved. From this point of view, perhaps the successor of SR-71 will never be available.

Under this design concept of “reinventing the airplane”, the SR-71 “Blackbird” showed many novel design features.

1. SR-71 will not leak oil only after flying to supersonic speed

  • Since the leather gasket or O-ring of the ordinary fuel tank cannot be used at high temperatures, the fuel tank of the SR-71 is not completely sealed, and the aircraft will leak a lot of oil on the ground. The security officer who saw this situation again had a heart attack. Fortunately, the fuel used in the SR-71 has a high ignition point, so it is much safer than ordinary fuel. Even if you throw a lighter into the fuel, you can’t light it.

SR-71 with a lot of oil leakage in the hangar

  • After the SR-71 exceeds the speed of sound, the fuselage structure will stretch under pneumatic heating, so the fuel tank seam will gradually close, so that the “Black Bird” will eventually stop oil leakage.

2. When Johnson developed the “Black Bird”, he thought of using coal as fuel

  • In order to find a suitable high-energy fuel for SR-71, Lockheed has racked its brains. Johnson first thought of liquid hydrogen. At that time, Lockheed had conducted in-depth research on the CL-400 liquid hydrogen high-speed aircraft project and manufactured an insulated liquid hydrogen tank, but in the end it was difficult to prepare and store because of liquid hydrogen. The liquid hydrogen tank is bulky.

  • The second kind of high-energy fuel that Johnson thought is coal suspension fuel, that is, the refined coal powder is mixed with water based on light oil to form a slurry, which is injected into the engine as fuel, but there is a disadvantage that it will damage the turbine blade. The third type is the over-boron suspension fuel, which is also difficult to use and often blocks the nozzles of the engine and afterburner. In the end, Johnson turned to traditional petrochemical fuels and commissioned Shell Petroleum to develop LF-2A, also known as JP-7 fuel oil. In addition to the high unit energy, this fuel also has a high ignition point, resulting in difficulty in starting the engine.

  • After adding jp-7, the sr-71 is leavingSo Lockheed designed a unique starting device for the SR-71. First, two air turbines inserted into the bottom of the engine compartment were used to drive the engine to a certain speed, and then a small amount of triethylboron was injected into the engine combustion chamber Alkanes (TEB). Triethylborane will spontaneously ignite at room temperature, which can ignite JP-7 fuel well. Triethylborane is also used for SR-71 afterburner and engine air restart.

3. SR-71 has a typical stealth shape design

  • The SR-71 inherits the aerodynamic layout of the A-12 single-seat reconnaissance aircraft, and further widens the side strips to flatten the fuselage section to enhance stealth performance. Other stealth design features include an inclination double vertical tail design and front and rear wings Zigzag triangle absorbing structure. A large number of stealth designs reduced the forward radar cross-sectional area of ​​the production SR-71 to about 10 square meters, which was a very good result at the time.

4. During the continuous flight of Mach SR-71, the inside of the canopy glass can be used for barbecue

  • The sr-71 has an obvious stealth designAlthough the air at 24,000 meters is thin, the SR-71 is still heated by pneumatic heating when flying at a speed of Mach 3 at this altitude. During a long Mach 3 flight, the surface temperature of the SR-71 fuselage ranged from 200-650 degrees. The temperature around the cockpit is about 280 degrees, the temperature of the cockpit windshield will be as high as 330 degrees Celsius, and the inside temperature is between 150-200 degrees. Although the pilot wears thick pressure gloves, he still feels horrified by touching the porthole with his hand Of heat. The wings and fuselage skin used as the outer wall of the fuel tank have higher temperatures, so a nitrogen inerting system needs to be installed in the fuel tank to reduce the possibility of fire. Nitrogen from the fuselage pressure bottle is directly injected into the fuel tank.

  • In order to resist this high temperature, the basic structure of SR-71 is made of high-strength stainless steel and titanium alloy, 93% of the fuselage is made of titanium alloy, and the radome, cockpit cover and some other parts are made of high temperature resistant composite materials.

The basic structure of the sr-71

5. The black coating of SR-71 “Black Bird” helps to reduce the surface temperature, and it will turn blue during high-speed flight

  • SR-71 is called “Blackbird” because the whole machine is painted black. This color is determined after the radiation test, that is, the heat radiated by the aircraft that is hot during the test flight. The difference in coating radiation ability can make the temperature difference of the aircraft from 10 ° C to 27 ° C, so it is very important. In high-altitude and high-speed flight, as the temperature of the aircraft increases, the black bird turns blue.

6. The SR-71 J58 engine is the first variable cycle engine in history

  • The J58 developed by Pratt & Whitney is the first variable cycle engine that can switch back and forth between turbojet and compressor assisted ram engine modes. There are six thick tubes on the side of the J58 engine, one end is connected to the position of the engine compressor, and the other end is connected to the engine afterburner.

  • J58 engineAt Mach 3.2, although the J58 engine only contributed 20% of the total thrust, 80% of the thrust came from the intake port working in the ram mode, but the J58 became the most fundamental source of power for the “Blackbird”. The air is compressed at the inlet of Mach 3.2, bypassing the engine and directly entering the afterburner to mix with the fuel to generate thrust.

7. SR-71’s fire breathing skills

  • The “Blackbird” air show firefighting is that the fireball will be intermittently sprayed at the tail when turning at a low altitude. This is because the “Blackbird” air intake and J58 engine are not suitable for low altitude and low speed high angle of attack flight. An intermittent compressor stall that does not affect flight safety occurs. In this state, if the throttle is increased, the tail nozzle will eject a huge fireball with the compressor stall.

SR-71 oil leakage problem hurts self&others

  • Everyone knows that the SR-71 “Blackbird” strategic reconnaissance aircraft is an aircraft that will always leak oil as long as it does not fly at supersonic speed. This is because the fuselage of the “Blackbird” has to withstand extremely high at the Mach 3 supersonic Pneumatic friction heating, the temperature of the leading edge of the wing will be as high as 593 degrees Celsius, and the fuselage structure will be extended by more than 30 centimeters after being heated. In order to prevent the fuselage from bursting, the SR-71 can only use the skin expansion joint design. Since the ordinary rubber soft fuel tank cannot withstand this high temperature, the SR-71 wing integral fuel tank directly uses the titanium alloy skin as the fuel tank wall. , Which inevitably leads to oil leakage problems.

    After the SR-71 exceeds the speed of sound, the fuselage structure will stretch under pneumatic heating, so the fuel tank seam will gradually close, so that the “Black Bird” will eventually stop oil leakage. In fact, the SR-71 also designed the fuel tank in such a way that it can absorb the heat of the skin surface during supersonic flight to avoid overheating inside the fuselage. For this reason, Shell Petroleum was commissioned by Lockheed to develop LF-2A fuel for SR-71. The military number is JP-7 fuel. This jet fuel has a high unit energy, a low freezing point, and a high ignition point.

  • So, how serious is the oil leakage problem of SR-71?

    An SR-71 pilot recalled that from the SR-71’s pre-flight inspection to take-off (which took about 40 minutes), it could leak up to 454 kg of fuel, making the ground oily. As long as it is the place where SR-71 has stayed, whether it is a hangar or a tarmac, the ground is always covered with grease.

    This oil stain also poses a danger to the “Black Bird” itself.

    During the Cold War period, a black bird returned to Kadena Air Force Base in Japan after completing a strategic reconnaissance mission in the Far East. After landing, it slowly slid to the SR-71 special hangars open at both ends beside the apron. Since it is a “Blackbird” special hangar, it is conceivable that its ground is naturally covered with JP-7 oil stains.

  • The “Black Bird” slowly slid into the hangar. When the current landing gear was close to the stop line drawn on the ground, the ground crew leader gave the pilot a gesture of braking. The pilot depressed the rudder pedal as usual, but somehow the plane did not stop. Because the hangar floor is covered with oil stains, although the main landing gear tires have been braked at this time, the huge SR-71 continues to move forward! Fortunately, the physiological support car that came to pick up the crew did not stop in front of the SR-71 this time, and escaped the fate of colliding with the landing gear of the aircraft.

    Seeing the situation is not good, immediately act to prevent the SR-71 from sliding. Someone immediately put the wheel gear in front of the landing gear wheel, and more people grabbed a part of the SR-71 fuselage and tried to stop the aircraft with human power, but all had no effect. Pilots in the cockpit are also trying their best to steer the nose landing gear to avoid letting the wingtips rub against the side wall of the hangar. But all this was in vain. After a few horrible scratches, the main landing gear tires of the aircraft finally rolled onto the dry concrete ground, which made the “Black Bird” stop. All of them have been out of the hangar.

  • After experiencing this terrorist accident, the US Air Force recognized the danger of SR-71 ground oil leakage and ordered that the ground must be cleaned up before the “Black Bird” enters the hangar!

  • “Blackbird” flies together to refuel in the air, not because the fuselage leaks oil

  • KC-135Q is a loyal partner of the SR-71 “Blackbird” strategic reconnaissance aircraft throughout its service. KC-135Q is the only tanker that can refill SR-7 with JP-7 special fuel. Many times when SR-71 is flying together, it needs to be docked with KC-135Q to refuel.

  • Many people think that the SR-71 did this because the aircraft leaked a lot of fuel on the ground. In order to deal with the aerodynamic heating at three times the speed of sound, the SR-71 has reserved expansion joints in the fuselage tank structure, which can only be taken up to a certain speed. Fully closed, otherwise there will always be oil leakage.

  • But this level of oil leakage is not enough to allow the SR-71 to fly to the point where it needs to be refueled in the air. In fact, the fundamental reason for this is for safety reasons.

  • The temperature of the surface metal skin of the SR-71 in triple-sonic flight will reach 200 degrees Celsius, heating the temperature of JP-7 fuel in the six fuel tanks inside the fuselage to more than 150 degrees Celsius. Even if JP-7 is a high-temperature resistant fuel, at this temperature, a mixture of oil and gas will form inside the fuel tank, and a Mars will cause an explosion. Therefore, the fuel tank of the SR-71 needs to be filled with inert gas for protection. In the absence of inerting, the maximum speed of the SR-71 is limited to below 2.6 times the speed of sound to prevent the fuel tank from detonating.

  • There are three 260-liter liquid nitrogen tanks in the SR-71’s front landing gear tank oil, which can continuously replenish the tanks with inert nitrogen during flight. The best way to ensure that each tank is 100% protected by nitrogen is to refuel in the air. With the filling of JP-7 fuel, the ambient air in the fuel tank can be effectively discharged out of the aircraft. In the subsequent flight, with the consumption of JP-7, the tank space is gradually filled with nitrogen at 1.5 PSI above the external atmospheric pressure Can effectively prevent spontaneous combustion of fuel. Therefore, in order to safely fly to triple the speed of sound, the SR-71 always refuels in the air after takeoff.

  • Of course, the tank can be completely inerted on the ground, but this is a nightmare for ground handling. They need to fill the SR-71 with 36.28 tons of JP-7 to exhaust the tank air, and then turn on the nitrogen switch, and at the same time draw another 6.8 tons of fuel in the tank to achieve complete inertia. At this time, the SR-71 can take off nearly 30 tons of fuel, and the only benefit of this is to allow the SR-71 to accelerate to three times the speed of sound immediately after take-off.

  • In addition to inerting the tank of SR-71, KC-135Q is also very important for the reconnaissance mission of the aircraft. If there is no air refueling. SR-71 will be a very short-range aircraft, only about 3700 kilometers, and many reconnaissance missions have a round-trip mileage of more than 20,000 kilometers, which requires SR-71 to receive multiple air refueling to complete.

The official speed of SR-71 is Mach 3.2, but it can actually exceed Mach 3.5

  • The SR-71 “Blackbird” strategic reconnaissance aircraft is the fastest air-breathing aircraft in the history of human aviation. The aircraft has flown nearly 2,800 hours in the 24 years of service and finally retired in January 1990.

  • “Blackbird” is designed to be a high-altitude speed that can continue to cruise at more than three times the speed of sound at an altitude of 26,000 meters, that is, more than 3540 kilometers per hour. So where is the limit of this plane and how fast can it fly?

  • Official Lockheed data indicates that the SR-71 has a maximum cruising speed of Mach 3.2, but according to the former pilot of the aircraft, Major Brian Shul, the high-speed potential of the “Blackbird” is much more than that.

  • After Operation Golden Canyon in April 1986, Shure drove SR-71 deep into Libya to conduct bombing damage assessment (BDA) reconnaissance on ground targets attacked by US military aircraft, and took photos to determine whether the target had been destroyed.

  • However, unlike the “Blackbird” design, Libya now has a Soviet-made advanced air defense system. So when the “Blackbird” flew over the death line and invaded Libyan airspace, the Rear Seat Reconnaissance System Officer (RSO) Walter warned that five Mahsu-made surface-to-air missiles were coming from the ground. The only thing the Blackbird pilot is afraid of, because the aircraft’s self-defense weapons only have speed and altitude.

  • Shure and the back seat calculated that they could take the target photo “just” by flying over Libya, but only if it was fast enough not to be shot down. So Shure made some adjustments to the “Blackbird” mission’s speed, high speed and fuel capacity plan, determined to fly over the target at a limit speed of Mach 3.2 for

  • As the Mach meter reading pointer gradually pointed to 3.2, the Libyans began to launch more missiles, and Shure simply pushed the throttle lever all the way to the end. The SR-71 accelerates rapidly while climbing at 150 meters per minute, while the engine remains “relatively cool.”

  • After a few seconds of acceleration, the SR-71 finally stabilized. Walter suggested to reduce the speed at this time. Shure noticed that the throttle was fully opened and the aircraft was flying at 1 km per second (3600 km / h) , Far exceeding the Mach 3.2 limit, became the fastest flight since the birth of “Black Bird”. They shot the target and then turned away. When the blue Mediterranean appeared in front of the windshield, Shure began to close the throttle. In this mission, Shure’s maximum speed exceeded Mach 3.5.

  • “Blackbird” can fly to Mach 3.5, thanks to the two J58 variable cycle turbojet engines. At this speed, the engine is merged with the carefully designed intake cone and intake duct system into a ramjet engine. And the faster the flight speed, the higher the operating efficiency. In this mode, the intake cone is retracted by 66 cm to produce supersonic shock wave compressed air intake. At this time, the engine must swallow 2830 cubic meters of air per second. In addition to the main intake valve and exhaust valve, the intake port All other intake valves are closed. After the airflow passes through the compressor, most of it directly enters the afterburning combustion chamber through the bypass pipe, and the combustion and expansion jet generates thrust.

  • The key at this time is that the intake and exhaust temperatures of the intake port must be closely monitored to keep it within the limits of the engine design, which is why the “Blackbird” flew to Mach 3.5 and the engine did not explode.

“Oxcart” plasma stealth

  • In the late 1990s, the myth about plasma stealth began to spread, saying that Russian scientists have developed a stealth device mounted on a fighter plane that can ionize air to form a plasma and absorb incident radar waves without changing The aerodynamic shape reduced the aircraft’s RCS to one percent before, which is one of the reasons why Russia did not develop stealth fighters at the time.

    Of course, it seems that this is just a rumor of erroneous rumors. At that time, Russia ’s research on ion stealth was far from being practical, otherwise it would not develop Su-57 stealth fighters.

    So, is there any practical airborne plasma stealth technology in the world? Yes, and it was first applied to the A-12 “ox cart”, the predecessor of the SR-71 “Blackbird” 3 Mach reconnaissance aircraft.

  • Before the U-2 entered service in 1956, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had begun to explore the successor to the aircraft. In order to improve survivability, in addition to high altitude and high speed, the radar stealth of the successor has also been placed in a very important position.

  • Eventually, Lockheed developed the A-12 “Oxcart” spy plane for the CIA, the predecessor of the SR-71. This single-seat reconnaissance aircraft can cruise at three times the speed of sound at high altitudes, and also incorporates the most advanced radar stealth technology at that time, ferrite absorbing coating, stealth fusion, radar absorbing structure of the wings and edge , Can significantly reduce RCS.

A-12 stealth design

  • But due to the stealth technology at that time, A-12’s efforts in stealth design cannot compensate for the damage caused by the huge tail nozzle of 1.52 meters in diameter to the stealth of the rear hemisphere. The incident radar wave can easily enter the tail nozzle afterburner combustion chamber. After encountering high-speed rotating turbine components, strong reflections are caused, so a method is needed to “seale” the tail nozzle.

  • “Skunk Factory” initially tried to use various metal meshes, but could not withstand high-temperature afterburner gas, and soon gave up these efforts. In the end, the designers came up with a way to add cesium additives to the fuel, so they saved the entire A-12 project.

  • The basic principle behind it is “plasma stealth”. By adding cesium to the fuel, this alkali metal will be converted into ionized gas in the hot wake to absorb electromagnetic radiation, preventing radar waves from looking directly at the engine tail nozzle. Lockheed has also tested sodium and potassium additives, and finally found that cesium is the preferred material because it is most easily ionized in the gaseous state.

  • The cesium additive completed the flight test in Area 51 in 1965, and was subsequently designated as A-50 additive. Due to the toxicity of cesium, this additive can only be injected into the JP-7 jet fuel if a specific mission authorization is obtained.

  • A-12 began its reconnaissance mission in 1967. The aircraft participated in Operation Black Shield from 1967 to 1968, flying 26 sorties over northern Vietnam and 3 sorties over North Korea. Although the specific situation has been kept strictly confidential, it is believed that in order to improve survivability, A-12 should use A-50 additives in these combat flights, which is also the first combat application of plasma stealth technology.

The secret of the heart of the blackbird

  • As we all know, the SR-71 “Blackbird” strategic reconnaissance aircraft is equipped with two peculiar Pratt & Whitney J58 engines. This 14,500 kg afterburner turbojet engine is the first practical variable cycle engine in aviation history. The aeroengine miracle was created in the 1950s.

  • The SR-71 “Blackbird” developed by Lockheed’s “Skunk Factory” maintained the fastest speed record of the aspirated aircraft until 2019. This record was established in 1976. However, few people know that with the unique variable cycle design of J58, the “Black Bird” still can not fly more than three times the speed of sound. The engine nacelle of the aircraft contributed most of the thrust in the Mach 3.2 cruise.

  • The Pratt & Whitney J58 engine is a standard afterburner turbojet engine at subsonic and transonic speeds. When the speed reaches about Mach 2, the J58 becomes a ramjet engine. J58 uses a large number of high-temperature nickel-based superalloys, including Inconel and Waspaloy alloys. The air inlet can withstand 430 ° C, and the afterburner must withstand 1760 ° C.

  • J58 has a nine-stage compressor with a compression ratio of 8.8: 1. When the speed reaches about Mach 2, six bypass ducts will direct most of the intake air from the fourth-stage compressor directly to the afterburner, making the engine work like a ramjet and run at a higher efficiency. But even if the working efficiency of the J58 has improved at this time, the engine of the “Blackbird” can only provide 20% thrust at a cruise speed of Mach 3.2. The remaining 80% is generated by the engine compartment.

  • The engine compartment system of the SR-71 has a variable geometry inlet, and the shock cone that can be adjusted forward and backward is used to control the position of the shock wave of the supersonic airflow, decelerating and compressing the supersonic air intake, and preventing the engine compressor from directly inhaling Sonic flow. At subsonic speed, the shock cone is fully forward, and starts to move backward when the height is higher than 9100 meters and the speed reaches Mach 1.6, ensuring that the intake shock wave is always in the best position in the intake throat. Since then, the speed of the aircraft increased by Mach 0.1, the shock cone moved backward by 4.1275 cm, and the total stroke was 66.04 cm.

Shock cone changes with Mach number

  • Another important part of the engine compartment is the bypass door. The front bypass door is located at the top and bottom of the intake port behind the shock cone. Its function is to discharge some intake air to reduce the excess pressure in the intake port. The front bypass door is controlled by the intake computer (AIC) and starts from Mach 1.4 according to the intake port pressure ratio (DPR, which is the ratio of the external pressure of the engine to the static pressure of the internal intake port) to prevent accumulation at the front of the compressor Too much pressure.

  • However, the low-speed intake air flowing from the front bypass door will cause a lot of resistance, so it should be kept closed as much as possible. The opening of the bypass door is also related to the shock cone, because the gas pressure will increase when the shock cone moves backward during acceleration, and the front bypass door needs to be opened to keep the pressure in a controlled state. The second set of bypass doors is the rear bypass door, which is manually controlled by the pilot to reduce the resistance during acceleration. If the bypass door is opened, the front bypass door needs to be closed, and vice versa.

J58 vortex jet mode at low speed

J58 vortex jet mode at low speed

  • Another set of openings in the engine compartment is a set of external grilles in the air intakes. These grilles allow extra air to enter the air intakes at low speeds, and at high speeds they are used to discharge the turbulent flow of the intake cone cladding to the outside. . Finally, a set of openings on the air intake hood can allow part of the subsonic air intake to flow into the engine compartment through the shock absorber, which assists in cooling the engine.

J58 high speed stamping mode

J58 high speed stamping mode

  • The SR-71 engine compartment adopts the ejection tail nozzle design. The tail nozzle has a ring-shaped opening. Through the main jet injection, a secondary flow is formed between the main nozzle and the outer casing to allow the exhaust flow to continue Expand into supersonic airflow to increase thrust.

  • It is through such a complicated design that the engine compartment of the SR-71 is truly integrated with the J58 variable cycle engine, becoming the biggest secret of the “Blackbird” triple speed cruise.

  • Origin of the SR-72 project can be traced back ten years ago. Since the September 11 terrorist attacks, the Pentagon has proposed to develop a “Global Rapid Strike” (PGS) capability, which aims to strike any target in the world within an hour. As a result, the US Air Force focused its attention on a powered hypersonic vehicle and issued the “Hypersonic Roadmap”, which directly promoted Lockheed Martin to invest huge amounts of money to develop the SR-72 project.

  • From the perspective of operational use, aircraft that break through defense at 6 times the speed of sound at high altitudes can have stronger survivability and even exceed the role of stealth. Supersonic aircraft and subsonic drones in active service may not be able to do this.

  • The Skunk Factory achieved several key technical achievements through the “Black Swallow” project in the womb, optimizing an overall aircraft configuration. More importantly, the skunk plant, through a long-term cooperation with Aerojet Rocketdyne, has found a way to integrate the turbojet engine with the scramjet engine, which can accelerate the aircraft from a stationary state to Mach 6 .

  • At present, the development of hypersonic aircraft using a turbo-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion system is facing an insurmountable “thrust gap” in the development process, that is, the existing turbojet engines generally work stably at a maximum flight speed of Mach 2.5 However, the normal working speed of the ramjet / combustion ramjet engine is at least in the range of Mach number 3.5 to 4.0, and there is a relay speed of about Mach number 3 between the two, which has always puzzled researchers around the world.

  • he Skunk Factory has teamed up with the North American Advanced Technology Corporation founded by Rolls-Royce to develop a bomb-type turbojet engine that can propel the cruise speed of the missile to Mach 3.0 or more without an afterburner. Judging from the prototypes that were publicly exhibited several years ago, this new engine has the characteristics of outstanding performance and flexible use.

  • Seven years ago, the Skunk Factory joined hands with Rock Dyne. Prior to the acquisition of Rock Dyne, Aviation Jet had proposed an enhanced rocket ejector ramjet engine technical solution, which was used as the third engine to play a role in seamlessly connecting the relay speed of the scramjet engine.

  • Although the relevant details are still in a state of secrecy, most of the designs that have successfully implemented mode conversion are focused on the intake port. By adopting an integrated design, the small high-Mach number turbojet engine and the dual-mode ramjet / combustion ramjet engine share an axisymmetric intake port and a tail nozzle, and adjust the inlet area and outlet area to meet the thermal power of the two engines. Circulation requirements to keep both booster systems stable.

  • The SR-72 UAV uses a ridged fuselage in the aerodynamic layout design, which is integrated with the large-swept delta wing, and forms a hunchback fuselage when it extends back about half. The ridge configuration and delta wings are designed to provide increased directional stability and greater lift at higher cruising speeds. On the outside of the engine air intake, the leading edge of the wing suddenly bends and then extends to the trapezoidal wing, forming a crank-shaped wing leading edge, thereby forming a saw-tooth-like leading edge angle that can provide vortex lift and help To achieve low-speed flight.

  • The SR-72 does not use the wave-riding configuration of the Boeing X-51A verification machine. The reason why the skunk factory is not keen to adopt a wave rider is that research has found that the price that the wave rider has to pay is that it must always be in a cruising state, and therefore has to consume most of the fuel.

  • The inlet of the SR-72’s curved turbine-ramjet engine can only restrict the use of small turbojet engines to achieve a low-impedance design with aerodynamic configuration. In this way, using the fighter engine can accelerate more easily. It is also very important that through a common intake port and tail nozzle, the intake port overflow resistance and the nozzle bottom resistance are significantly reduced.

  • The SR-72 uses a dual-engine design with a length of more than 30.48 meters and cruises with a Mach number of 6. Compared with the SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft, the aircraft is basically equivalent in size, has the same range, but the maximum speed has doubled, and has the optional ability to attack the target.

  • For the sake of stability, the Skunk Factory considers that it will first develop an optional manned flight research aircraft (FRV) with a length of approximately 18.29 meters and a full-size engine. The size of this verification aircraft is roughly equivalent to the F-22 fighter, and it can continue to fly at a speed of Mach 6 for several minutes.

  • SR-72 project is still in the stage of key technology verification. It takes time to develop the model project. The US military has not confirmed the purchase, but the skunk factory suddenly disclosed the secretly implemented SR-72 project for many years. It seems that the US Department of Defense Reenactment-acquiescing the SR-72 project to the public, forcing opponents to passively take various countermeasures, even if they consume astronomical research and development funds, they have little effect, so as to contain the opponent.

    Therefore, whether the “Son of Blackbird” was born as scheduled and moved freely over various countries, or still unable to break away from the hypersonic “swaddle”, the final death, is still an unknown. However, the persistent efforts of the United States to research and develop hypersonic weapons have been enough to attract the attention of the world and will inevitably have a profound impact on the future.

The development of similar weapons in the world

  • At present, the only countries in the world that have successfully developed practical aircraft with a flight speed of more than 3 times the speed of sound are the United States and Russia. The most famous models are the SR-71 and MiG-25 aircraft. The US Air Force and the Central Intelligence Agency used SR-71 and A-12 to carry out a large number of spy reconnaissance missions around the world and were never shot down. Russia’s MiG-25 has been undertaking interception and bombing missions, and later developed a slightly slower MiG-31 interceptor, which is still the most important interceptor in Russia.

  • As we all know, China ’s military aviation engines have always been weak, which has restricted the national production of Chinese multi-type fighters and transport aircraft. The so-called difficulties are not difficulties. China bases itself on the goal of self-defense equipment development. Sooner or later, the bottleneck of the aero engine will be completely eliminated. According to the known information, China is strengthening the integration of aviation industry enterprises, and the aviation development issue will become a key research project, and will receive state capital and capital market financing support.

  • World military aviation experts believe that China’s military aviation engine is generally at least 20 years behind the United States. The so-called 20-year gap is mainly based on similar models and performance. Because the most advanced F119 and F120 turbofan engines in the United States have adopted variable cycle, vector nozzle and other technologies, while foreign turbofan engines were installed around the 1980s, the WS9 in China was only available in the late 1990s. Successfully developed, the WS10 was finalized in the early 21st century, and the overall time for the finalization of these turbofan machines abroad is about 20 years. However, it is reported that China has adopted the design concept and manufacturing process of F119 and other engines in WS10B and WS15A, and there are even more advanced theoretical innovations than the United States.

  • China Aviation News recently reported that in the past period, several models of the Turbine Design Institute have once again won the scientific research test flight. The progress of the development of these models has responded to the expectations of the country and users, and has strengthened people’s confidence in going out of China’s independent development of aeroengines. According to China Aviation Engine Company, the technical target timetable for the development of Chinese engines has already been scheduled to 2030. It can be seen that the tough battles and assault battles of China’s aviation engines have already begun. With the successful foundation of turbofan 10A and turbofan 9, China will challenge higher technology and forward-looking technology.

    The “China Aviation News” published on August 25 mentioned that in the first half of 2015, they (Aviation Qing’an Engine Group) have completed the design work of the three-type engine multi-type product, and in May, respectively. In July, it successfully passed the plan review of the host computer. Based on this analysis, the domestic military media stated that the “triple engine” that the unit participated in was described in the article as: “China’s first newly developed tandem turbo ramjet engine project for an aircraft”, “a key model engine” “And” a bypass model engine in a key model. “According to the relevant descriptions in the text, it can be speculated that the latter two are the turbofan-10 improved engine and turbofan-18 engine that have been previously disclosed in China.

  • The “tandem turbo ram combination engine” mentioned in “China Aviation News” is a kind of variable cycle engine. The engines that have been put into practical use in the world are mainly used by the US SR-71 “Blackbird” strategic reconnaissance aircraft. J58 engine. This kind of engine actually adds a circle of air passages around the periphery of a turbojet engine. There is a ramming combustion chamber at the rear. When the flight speed of the aircraft reaches 1.5 times the speed of sound, the inlet of the Warren jet engine is closed by a hydraulic valve. The air passage allows the air flow to directly enter the ramming combustion chamber for combustion. In this way, the ramjet engine can take advantage of its high efficiency from supersonic to hypersonic conditions, and at low speeds, turbojet engines are used to provide power during the take-off and landing phases. The “Blackbird” aircraft developed in the 1970s can reach 3.5 times the speed of sound under the propulsion of the J58 engine, and it is still the fastest practical jet aircraft to date.

  • Gao Feng, a military commentator, believes that China is developing the WU14 system of hypersonic weapons on an equal footing to the new war concept that the United States has fought all over the world in one hour. At the same time, in view of the development trend of cutting-edge technology of military aircraft, China will inevitably make forward-looking research and development on manned and unmanned high-sonic fighter projects. If China’s tandem ramjet engine succeeds, then China’s hypersonic fighters (including drones) are just around the corner.

  • Before the launch of hypersonic fighters, China also exposed a special significance UAV No Scout 8 in its 70th anniversary military parade. Its unique shape is refreshing and bright.

  • The high lift-to-drag ratio profile of No Detect 8

  • Before the No-Shot 8, China only had the J-8 modified JD-8 undertaking the task of high-altitude reconnaissance.

  • Although the reconnaissance capabilities of satellites have been greatly improved, the survivability and flexibility are poor, and they still cannot replace reconnaissance aircraft. Today’s world can be compared with Wudeng 8, only the famous blackbird. Only comparison can better understand Wudun 8, which is more vivid and vivid than enumerating a lot of boring data. The following will try to analyze each of these four aspects from the aerodynamic layout, engine, material, speed and height (these two are inseparable and discussed together).

  • First, in terms of aerodynamic layout, the non-detection-8 (WZ-8orDR-8) shape is very special. It is a flying wing layout with sharp delta wings. The two engines are perfectly integrated into the fuselage. The two vertical tails are located on both sides of the main wing, providing sufficient heading stability for high-speed flight. Obviously, this is a high-speed flying drone. In addition, it also has an excellent stealth design. There is no intake port alone, which is already an unparalleled innate stealth advantage.

  • Blackbird only uses a delta wing in the rear fuselage, and the wings are suddenly inserted into two huge J58 variable cycle engines, and the degree of fusion is not high, which is not a lift body.

Blackbird’s body fusion is not very high

  • Although the black bird as a manned reconnaissance aircraft has reached the theoretical “double three” standard, but the flight height and speed are beyond the human body’s acceptable range, the two members must wear fully sealed flight suits, similar to astronauts. And the huge cockpit also needs to cool down to create a suitable driving environment, the weight added around the pilot is very considerable.

  • All this leads to the black bird’s bulky weight, the maximum take-off weight is 78 tons, the maximum climb rate is only 60 m / s, and the wing load is 460 kg / m2, making the black bird’s range only 4800 kilometers, which is not enough.

  • Without detection 8 is not subject to all restrictions related to pilots. The layout of the flying wing brought greater lift and load, and eventually reached a speed and range far exceeding that of the Blackbird with a volume much smaller than that of the Blackbird.

  • Second is the engine. Blackbird uses a large and complicated turbojet ramjet variable cycle engine. However, because the ramjet has no compressor and cannot be started under static conditions, it must be used in conjunction with the turbojet engine to become a combined power plant. But the engine thrust produced by such a great effort is not very good. When the punching speed is 3 times the speed of sound, the static thrust generated on the ground is only 200 kilonewtons. This makes the Blackbird’s weight-to-weight ratio not high, and its acceleration is not good. The advantage of the ramjet engine is that it can continue to provide greater thrust than the turbojet engine’s afterburner, and maintain high-speed flight for a long time.

  • Engines of non-detection-8(WZ-8orDR-8) are two liquid rocket engines. There is no intake port and its adjustment device, eliminating the huge intake adjustment cone of Blackbird, but to carry oxidant, oxidant and combustion agent must be stored in different tanks .

  • No detect 8 tail nozzle

  • When the intake speed of the ramjet engine is 3 times the speed of sound, in theory, the air pressure can only be increased by 37 times, and the liquid rocket engine does not have this limitation at all. Therefore, the temperature of the combustion chamber of the liquid rocket engine can reach 3000 ~ 4000 ℃, while the temperature of the combustion chamber of the ramjet engine is only more than 2000 degrees. Therefore, the liquid rocket engine has a great advantage in thrust.

  • The climbability and acceleration of an aspirated engine cannot be compared with rocket engines. Not suitable for time-sensitive tasks like battle damage assessment.

  • And the new type of liquid rocket engine adopted by No.8 can repeatedly start, control the amount of thrust, and work longer. After the rocket is boosted to the near space, it can increase the range and stagnation time by gliding.

  • The new rocket engine blurs the boundary between the missile and the aircraft. The No-Survey 8 can be a high-speed aircraft or a missile with doubled range.

  • Then there is the material. 93% of Blackbird’s body material is titanium alloy, which is very expensive and costs 2 billion US dollars. Attention! This was 2 billion dollars in the 1960s, so it only produced 32 aircraft. Wuzheng 8 uses carbon fiber composite material, which is far from comparable to the immature titanium alloy of Blackbird.

  • No detect 8-1Finally, speed and altitude. When conducting reconnaissance, it must penetrate into the enemy’s control zone, so it will inevitably face the enemy’s various air defense systems, so the speed and height of the non-detection-8(WZ-8orDR-8) must be able to ensure that it is able to move through the opponent’s dense defense network, and then retreat. Row.

  • Contemporary air defense systems have put forward higher requirements for reconnaissance aircraft. It is not in the 1960s and 1970s, when air defense missiles just started, they could only intercept air targets under 30,000 meters and speeds not exceeding 2 times the speed of sound. Not to mention the more advanced air defense / anti-missile systems around, such as Patriot, Sade, Standard, and S-300 / 400 series. Fighting double 3 types of aerial targets can be achieved even with Taiwan ’s more stubborn Skybow series missiles.

  • The cutoff point of supersonic and hypersonic speed Mach 5 is actually for the ramjet engine, which is the theoretical boundary between sub-combustion and super-combustion. Rocket engines do not have this limitation at all. China’s aspirated engine is backward, but the rocket The engine, especially the liquid rocket engine, is not much worse than the world’s advanced level. The new type of engine without detection 8 has brought new vitality to the liquid rocket. Abandon the flashy, complicated and unreliable ramjet engine.

  • Therefore, the flight speed of No-detection-8 should not only exceed Mach 5, but also possibly reach Mach 7 or Mach. The fastest manned aircraft to date by humans is not the “black bird” of Mach 3, but the United States. The X-15 rocket-powered test machine can reach speeds above Mach 6, which is still at the level of the 1960s, and it is very possible to reach the Mach 7-8 speed without considering the manned “no detection-8” speed.

  • Then there is the altitude. Some cutting-edge anti-aircraft and anti-missile weapons, such as the Sade S-300 / 400, have a maximum intercept height of more than 30 kilometers, the Israeli Arrow 2 intercept height is also 80 or 90 kilometers, and the standard 3 is more than 100. Kilometers.

  • However, the current anti-aircraft / anti-missile weapons in the world cannot effectively deal with weapons in the near space. If the No-S-8 can perform hypersonic gliding in the near space, the maneuvering range is wider and the flight trajectory is erratic. The current various interceptions There is no way to take it.

  • In 1998, the Blackbird strategic reconnaissance aircraft have all been retired, and the successor is the legendary goddess of dawn. However, in recent years, there have been signs that the development of scramjet engines in the United States seems to have encountered a bottleneck and has been in a state of experimentation and ignited in tornado How difficult a match is, this is actually also expected. China’s No Detect 8 has taken another path, opening up a new world in the field of hypersonic aircraft.

  • The main mission of No Investigation 8 is rapid strategic reconnaissance, obtaining vital images and radar intelligence over important enemy targets, and can closely track the movement of enemy surface ships, indicating targets for a new generation of hypersonic missiles, and rigid satellite trajectories In wartime, it is very likely to be hit by the Standard 3 preemptive strike.

  • In addition to rapid reconnaissance, the non-detection-8(WZ-8orDR-8) must also be able to cooperate with DF-17 / 21/26 and other medium-range ballistic missiles for battle damage assessment. From this we can judge that the range of the non-detection-8(WZ-8orDR-8) should be greater than 5000 kilometers.

  • Non-reconnaissance 8(WZ-8orDR-8), which can operate both in the atmosphere and in adjacent space, already has the characteristics of an aerospace plane, which can be regarded as China’s initial exploration of aerospace flight.

  • With the emergence of No Investigation 8, it is reported that another Chinese drone, No Investigation 9, also known as Xianglong, has also been in service. Its biggest feature is that it can fly to tens of thousands of meters, so portable air defense missiles and short range air defense missiles It has no solution. Wudeng 9 made its debut at the Zhuhai Air Show in 2000. However, there is not much information about No Detect 9 at present, which has led many people to forget the Detect 9 long ago. As a new generation of China’s new long-range stealth unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, Wudeng 9 uses a multi-wing layout, while its engine uses a more mature turbofan 7.

  • The Longsword 100 cruise missile, which also appeared in the National Day parade, also earned a lot of attention. It can be mounted by a 6N bomb and has a maximum range of 2,000 kilometers. The non-detection 8 UAV can make the Long Sword 100 reach the target smoothly, and provide real-time field information for the Long Sword 100 to fly long distances. The high-speed stealth of No Detect 8 also makes it difficult for the enemy’s radar to detect, so it is relatively simple to attack it. At present, China is gradually advancing the investment in drones, and with the continuous development of future drone technology, a new generation of integrated hypersonic drones will also appear.

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